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Hungary

Red Hungarian Air Corps (Voros Legjarocsapat)

March to November 1919


Wing's cherons

Following Hungarian independence in November 1918, a small air arm was established operating surviving aircraft from Hungarian factories and training schools. This air arm became the Hungarian Red Air Force under the short lived Hungarian Soviet Republic.


Fuselage and Wings

Rudder

Later variant

Variant

The Red Hungarian Air Corps (Voros Legjarocsapat) formed in March 1919, carried three styles of national insignia. The first, consisting of (from the outermost) red-white-green chevrons on the wings, was soon superseded by red stars on a white square on wings and rudder. Later, a red star with a thin white outline was also used on some camouflaged aircraft. Another variation existed on this insignia, used at least on a Fokker D.VII, in which the white and red colours were reversed.

Example: Fokker D.VII

Kingdom Hungary

November 1919 to August 1938

Under the Versailles Treaty, Hungary was forbidden from owning military aircraft. However, a secret air arm was gradually established under the cover of civilian flying clubs.

Royal Hungarian Home Defence AF (Magyar Kiralyi Honved Legiero[MKHL])

August 1938 to March 1942


Wings

Tail-Rudder

The first insignia adopted by the MKHL after its official unveiling in 1938 was a red-white-green tricolour chevron with standard proportions (heigth:base=2:1), painted on wings and tail with vertex in the direction of flight. (Decree of the Secretary of Defence No.30.418/1938, August 23, 1938)

Example: Caproni Ca.101

March 1942 to May 1945


Wings and fuselage

Tail-Rudder

Stabilizers

New natonal markings, which further conformed to the Axis line, were finally approved by 12 March, 1942, as a white cross on a black square on wings and fuselage, and a tricolour on the tail - with the red innermost - and on both horizontal tail planes (Decree of the Secretary of Defence No. 142.415/1942).)

Example: Reggiane Re.2000 Falco/Heja I/II


Variant

Variant

Later on in the war, the white crosses of the Hungarian national insignia were usually overpainted in grey or left unpainted for a lower visibility contrast.

Example: Messerschmitt Me.210/Me.410 Hornisse


Rudder (simplified)

From the winter of 1944 the tricolor on the tail was usually reduced or deleted altogether. By that time the Hungarian colors were not painted any more on the horizontal tail planes.

Example: Focke-Wulf Fw.190F/G


Variant

Variant

Occasionally, the wing crosses - either white or overpainted in grey - were applied only with a very thin black border, omiting the usual black background square.

Example: Messerschmitt Bf.109G Gustav

Hungarian Republic

1945 to 1947

After the end of WW2, all military flying was prohibited in Hungary until June 1947.

Air Force of the Hungarian People's Army (Hovedsegi Kozlony)

1948 to 1949

In 1948, the new Hungarian Peoples Army (Hovedsegi Kozlony), introduced new national markings in the form of a red roundel with a white triangle and green centre circle. The tail tricolour continued in use as before.


Wings and fuselage

Tail-Rudder

Stabilizers

1949 to 1951


Wings and fuselage

Tail

To better reflect Hungary's government political allegiances, and also to avoid confusion with the Lebanese insignia, the national markings were changed in 1949 to a red star on a roundel, of which the colours were (from outside) red, white, green and white. This insignia was also used on the tail, thus dispensing with the tail tricolour flag.

1951 to 1990


Wings and fuselage

Tail

The Hungarian markings were changed yet again in 1951, this time to avoid any confusion with the Yugoslav national insignia. These white-outlined red stars with inscribed white and green circles would survive unchanged until 1990.

Example: Ilushin Il-10 Beast
Example: MiG MiG-21/J-7 Fishbed/Mongol
Example: Yakovlev Yak-9 Frank

November 1956


Rebel's markings

When Soviet forces invaded in November 1956, to suppress the national uprising, sections of the Hungarian Air Force attacked Soviet forces and resisted Russian attempts to occupy their bases. The resistance was shortlived and the air force was demobilised soon after. According some sources the Hungarian helicopters (and probably planes) carried these markings.

Hungarian Air Defense Group (Magyar Honvedseg Repulo Csapatai [MHRC])

1991 to Present


Wings

Tail

The end of the communist regime led to the re-introduction of the traditional chevron insignia, formally re-introduced as the Air Force marking in 1991. The chevron is, as before, based upon a 2:1 ratio triangle. The width of the red and white stripes are one sixth of the triangles base. The chevron is surrounded by a 1 cm white border. Stencilling marks are often visible on this border when the marking is applied.

Example: MiG MiG-23 Flogger
Example: MiG MiG-29/MiG-33/MiG-35 Fulcrum
Example: Sukhoi Su-17/Su-20/Su-22 Fitter


Interim insignia (used in 1990)

A red roundel with an inscribed white-green Hungarian chevron was applied on three Mi-8S helicopters and a MiG-21PFM as an interim insignia during the papal legate visit in the autumn of 1990.

Example: MiG MiG-21/J-7 Fishbed/Mongol

by Stephen Sender and Ivanov Grigory


Last update: 05/08/2013
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